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Types of gum disease

Periodontal diseases can be divided into a few types according to the degree the disease has spread and the tissues involved.

Gingivitis
This is the relatively mild form of periodontal diseases, from which most of us suffer. Gingivitis only causes damage to the soft tissues, the pink gingiva (gums) surrounding the jaw bones, without damaging the bone and the tooth’s attachment mechanism. Gingivitis can be either local or spread out.
Symptoms of the disease: Redness, swelling, bleeding when touched or while brushing. Sometimes, deep gingival pockets are measured, but these do not damage the bone (false pockets). In almost all cases, gingivitis is not accompanied by pain, so its existence is not usually noticed.

Chronic Periodontitis
This is a more progressed disease which also involves the supporting bone and destroys the tooth’s attachment mechanism. Chronic periodontitis is traditionally classified according to its extent (local or spread out) and based on its severity (the rate of clinical attachment loss as is possible to identify on an X-ray). All cases of periodontitis have originated from gingivitis, but not all cases of gingivitis will progress to become periodontitis. We have no way of predicting which cases will deteriorate from gingivitis to periodontitis, so it is important to treat all cases of gingivitis as soon as the first symptoms appear.
Symptoms of the disease: Redness, swelling, bleeding, pockets deeper than 5 mm, bone destruction, looseness and widening of the gaps between the teeth.

Periodontal Abscess
This is a local, abscessed infection within the gingival tissue in the area of the pocket, or furcation (the point where the roots divide on multirooted teeth), which can lead to quick destruction of the attachment mechanism.
Signs of the disease: Smooth, shiny swelling in the area of the gingival pocket or the furcation, purulent discharge, pain, sensitivity to tapping, looseness of teeth, bone loss.

Perio-endo Lesion
Due to the fact that the dental pulp tissue, nerves and blood vessels are linked to the tissues surrounding and supporting the tooth, sometimes an infection which begins as an infection in the root of the tooth can advance to the gingiva, and vice versa. Therefore, treatment in these cases must be combined – endodontic treatment and periodontal treatment.

Gingival Recession
Sometimes, as a result of periodontitis, aggressive brushing or other factors, the neck of the root of the tooth is exposed, meaning that the gingival tissue has receded.
Symptoms: The neck of the tooth is exposed and the tooth looks “elongated,” aesthetically unpleasant, sensitivity to heat/cold. The original reason for the appearance of the problem should obviously be treated.

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